Physical fitness is the ability of the human body to perform different physical activities efficiently, delaying the onset of fatigue and decreasing the time needed to recover after activities.
Physical Fitness is the result of the proper functioning of the organs, apparatus, and systems of the human body, due to the periodic and systematic performance of physical activities. The basic components of fitness are AEROBIC CAPACITY, ANAEROBIC POWER, and FLEXIBILITY.
In order to improve physical fitness, the different physical qualities of the body must be developed. These physical qualities are classified into:
To improve physical fitness, these qualities need to be developed. It is very easy to distinguish people who are physically fit, everywhere you find people who are strong, fast, resilient and agile; they also have a beautiful body and quickly learn all the sports they are taught. There are also people of different ages in the community who are in excellent physical condition.
1) Aerobic Capacity: Is the physical capacity of the human organism that allows the performance of physical activities of LONG DURATION (more than 4 minutes) and LOW or MEDIUM INTENSITY (between 120 and 170 pulses per minute approximately).
Aerobic-type physical activities are those that do not require much effort but require long-term maintenance, which can range from 4 minutes to several hours. With these activities, the accumulated fat is “BURNED” and the person reduces centimeters of the circumference around his abdomen and other parts of his body, thus reducing his body weight.
A typical example of an anaerobic activity is the MARATHON, in which a long distance (just over 42 kilometers) is covered in a time that depends on the capacity of each runner, but which is always longer than two hours of continuous running.
2) Anaerobic power: This is the capacity of the human organism that allows the performance of physical activities of SHORT DURATION (up to 3 minutes) and HIGH INTENSITY (between 170 and 220 pulses per minute approximately).
Anaerobic potency encompasses several physical capacities, they are Muscle endurance, muscle power, muscle strength, and speed. In all of them, sugar and certain substances stored in the muscles are used to produce the energy needed for movement, without the need to use oxygen from the air.
When anaerobic activities are performed, the body fat is not burned, but the different muscles involved in the movements are strengthened. The performance of sufficient quantities of these activities allows a significant improvement in the body appearance of people of both sexes.
The most notable example of an anaerobic activity is ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS, both male and female. In this sport we see very resistant, powerful, strong and fast gymnasts doing exercises in different apparatuses.
3) Flexibility: It is the physical capacity that allows the performance of joint movements with the MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE that each joint allows.
Flexibility is that which allows an individual to perform all the movements related to joint mobility and muscular elasticity with fluidity, harmony, and amplitude.
Flexibility makes it easier for us to perform any dexterity (whether it is sports or daily life) and avoids the production of injuries to the joints or muscles when performing physical activities.
4) Speed: Is the physical capacity that consists of traveling a short distance in the shortest time. A person’s speed depends on their muscle strength and neuromuscular coordination.
Example: Speed race in Athletics.
Speed is the ability to make an effort in the shortest possible time.
5) Muscular Strength: It is the whole capacity of the human being to overcome or counteract external resistance, by means of muscular efforts. Depending on the applicable working regime, the force can be manifested isometrically (statically) when the length of the muscle remains unchanged during tension; isotonic (dynamic) when the tension causes a change in the length of the muscle, either by decreasing its length (concentric regime) or by praising it (eccentric regime).
Muscle strength is the ability of the muscle to generate muscle tension by contracting the muscle. Muscle power is the ability to perform physical work in an explosive manner, to overcome resistance in the shortest possible time.